The most important Inca Gods and Religion
The Incas were an advanced civilization which flourished in South America around 14th century. Although much of their technology and architecture is no longer extant, many aspects of culture and religion still survive today; we will explore what makes the Inca gods important in this article.
The Inca religion
Inca worshippers practiced polytheism by worshipping multiple gods simultaneously. While Inti was most revered as their sun god, other important divinities included Mama Killa (Moon goddess), Illapa (Thunder God) and Pachamama (Earth Goddess).
The Inca people believed that gods could influence their lives and communicate with them directly, so to keep the balance of nature in check they offered sacrifices of animals and valuable items to appease these gods.
The Inca religion stressed the significance of honoring their ancestors. The Inca believed their ancestors shared a special connection with their gods, helping to guide and direct their destiny by speaking on their behalf. With great reverence for elders, they wanted to ensure their happiness in afterlife.
The Inca religion placed great emphasis on reciprocity as an essential principle, believing that by respecting and honoring their gods, their favor would come back in kind. Everything in their lives centered around this idea of reciprocity.
History of the Inca Religion
The Inca religion evolved out of beliefs held by Andean civilizations. It was heavily influenced by Tiwanaku culture - one that existed long before the Inca Empire came into power - which dominated Lake Titicaca before they united under their empire.
The Inca religion venerated Viracocha as their chief god. They believed he created everything. Unfortunately, with Spain's conquest of South America came an end to both their Empire and religion; however their beliefs and practices have since been preserved among indigenous communities living in Andean mountains.
Rituals and ceremonies
The Inca religion featured an abundance of ceremonies and rituals designed to please their gods and secure their support. People would gather for various types of ceremonies such as sacrifices, processions, feasts, dances, and music performances.
Capac Cocha (Human Sacrifice)
Capac Cocha was an ancient Inca practice of human sacrifice. They believed it would make the gods happy and gain their favor. Sacrificing infants or prisoners of war as sacrifices was thought to be less attached to this world and would therefore be better sacrifices.
Inti Raymi Festival
The Inti Raymi Festival takes place each year in Cusco, Peru as a combination of religious and cultural festivities. Held annually on June 21st--winter solstice--it honors Inti, Inca god of sun. A fun-filled event featuring traditional dances and music performances makes this an attractive tourist destination.
This celebration marked the commencement of agricultural work during summer solstice, when people would celebrate with agricultural work by holding religious services and consider certain Llamas sacred, hoping that a successful season was ahead of them.
Afterlife in the Inca religion
The Inca religion stressed the concept of an afterlife and reincarnation as being crucial. Reincarnation allowed their souls to return back into another person or animal's body after they died; many people also held firm to the belief that loved ones would rejoin them eventually, making them feel part of an extended community and family unit.
Spanish conquistadors spread Christianity across North and South America during the early 16th century, significantly altering indigenous religious practices of Americas native peoples.
The Spanish conquerors quickly converted the indigenous populations to Christianity through forceful conversion, sometimes through violence or intimidation. Additionally, they often destroyed temples and idols worshiped by native populations and forbade traditional religious practices that they practiced.
Indigenous people gradually converted to Christianity while maintaining many of their traditional religious practices and beliefs. Today, you can still witness this combination of Christianity and indigenous spiritual practices across much of North and South America.
The most important Gods of the Incas
The Incas worshipped many gods. Polytheism was common among their beliefs. Their people believed in three main gods: Inti (sun god); Viracocha (creator god) and Pachamama (goddess of fertility).
The sun god - Inti
Inti, or Inte, was an important deity in Inca religion. People believed he was Viracocha's child and believed he gave life and light. Peruvians revered Inti as their Sun God/Fire God and his cult was especially revered in Cusco city.
People traditionally imagined Inti as a golden disk with radiating rays emanating from it and sometimes drawn as having human features. People believed the colors red and yellow represented sun's heat and light and associated them with him, along with gold, silver, or copper offerings as people considered these metals highly valued by Inti. Inca believed Inti brought daylight every morning when he emerged from his cave in the east; at nightfall when returning back home. People also believed he would leave darkness upon earth upon passing away.
The Inti Raymi festival was an important one among Inca people and still celebrated today by indigenous communities in Peru. People made offerings to Inti as part of this annual winter solstice ritual to ensure his rise each morning, providing light and life to our world. Indigenous populations still celebrate it today!
The moon - Mama Killa
Mama Killa was an integral goddess in Inca religion and worshiped as their patron deity by both royalty and commoners. Her temple could be found in Cusco. Mama Quilla represented fertility of land and people alike, helping ensure crops grew well and children were healthy births.
Viracocha - Wiracocha
Viracocha, also known as Wiracocha, was worshiped as the supreme god by Inca people throughout their empire. They showed him as an elderly male with long hair and wearing an elaborate llama skin cloak; these people believed he created everything in existence as well as brought light and brightness to world. Additionally, Incas believed he would return and bring peace and prosperity back onto earth one day.
People built temples and shrines to honor Viracocha. Sacrifices were offered in order to gain his favor and secure his blessing. Many communities throughout Peru, Bolivia and Chile still revere Viracocha as an important figure whose image can be seen everywhere from artwork and statues all the way down to artwork in public places across Peru, Bolivia and Chile.
Mother earth - Pachamama
Pachamama, or Mother Earth, was revered by Incas as the source of all life on Earth. They believed she existed within mountains, rivers and lakes around them as an all-powerful female figure who connected all living things and provided nourishment and sustenance for survival.
The Incas believed that by treating Pachamama well, she would provide them with everything they needed. They celebrated her with grand events and constructed places of worship dedicated to her worship. People still revere her today throughout South America and offer sacrifices as an offering.
Mother of the sea - Mama Cocha
Mama Cocha is the Inca goddess or spirit of the sea. This figure assists marine life to remain healthy, fertility, as well as safeguarding sailors and fishermen.
God of tremors - Pachacamac
Pachacamac was revered by people living along the coastal region and Andean mountains as the creator god, often confusing him with Viracocha (see above). His home was located atop a hill overlooking Lima; this region often experienced earthquakes and other natural calamities that called out for his worship.
God of Thunder - Illapa
Illapa was the god who controlled weather events such as lightning, rain, and hailstorms. People would offer sacrifices to Illapa in order to make him happy and prevent adverse conditions - such as Llama foetuses believed to please this deity.
The Rainbow - Kuychi
Kuychi was revered as the god who brought rain and fertility to Peruvian earth, with many offering gifts such as llamas or other animals as tribute to him - sometimes children were even sacrificed as symbols of respect towards him. His festival usually took place during December when rainstorms typically hit Peru.
The stars - Chaska
Chaska is an Inca song dedicated to stars. They believed they had immense power, so would often offer gifts in return.
God of the death - Supay
According to Andean cosmovision, death is closely connected with life - we come into this world, go through various stages, only to die and be reborn again at some point. Supay, the god of death in Andean mythology is considered an important deity as she leads dead souls into their afterlife.
God of wealth - Ekkeko
Ekkeko, or Incan mythology's God of Wealth. People often depict Ekkeko as an old man with a large belly, large nose, long flowing locks of hair and wearing a hat and carrying an assortment of bags full of items on his back. Many believe he brings good fortune and luck when people please him with their offerings of wealth; many businesses and households seek his assistance to become prosperous.
Sacred Animals in the Inca religion
The Inca religion revered many animals. Pumas, condors and serpents were of particular significance. Additionally, this tradition assigned special meanings to various other creatures within its fold.
The Inca people believed that the world could be divided into three realms, known as the Inca Trilogy. Gods resided in Hanan Pacha - this was also where the sun rose each morning - while humans resided in Kay Pacha (where the moon set each night), while Ukju Pacha represented what happened after death - there were three animals who represented this theory: Condor, Ouma and Snakes respectively.
People of ancient societies regarded the Condor as a messenger from their gods, often using it in religious ceremonies and gatherings. Incas believed it could fly higher than any other bird and could predict what was to come in future events.
The Inca considered the puma an important religious symbol and believed it could help them on their journey through life. They believed it protected homes and families while symbolizing our world; commonly referred to as Kay Pacha.
The Inca believed that snakes possessed special powers and could help them communicate with Ukju Pacha (underworld).
The Inca people revered Llamas and held them in high regard; these creatures played an integral part in their religion as people used llamas for transport and meat/wool production, plus many believed llamas were gifts from gods to aid with religious rituals.
The Inca people admired the fox for being cunning and cunning, always finding ways to win. People saw its intelligence and cleverness as indicators of Wiracocha - their god of creation.
The Incas believed that dogs were sacred animals that could assist the soul on its journey into the afterlife, so people buried their dogs alongside their loved ones as an act of respect, believing they would keep away any unwanted spirits that may enter gravesites.
People believed the bear to be the symbol of strength, power and courage - often considered its rebirth from ancient warriors who protected them. Many saw its symbolic nature as strength of mind over matter - an effective protector.
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